Breast surgery



It is well known that a woman’s breasts define her femininity. With the vast differences in shape, size, and appearance, they also help to define a woman’s sense of identity. Breast size and shape change in response to factors such as genetics, aging, pregnancy and breast feeding, weight gain or loss, and hormonal fluctuations.

These changes can be dissatisfying, making a woman self-conscious, as if she is no longer attractive and desirable.

Breast augmentation

Breast augmentation can be used to increase the size of the breast or balance breasts of unequal sizes, restore breast volume, and reconstruct the breast after partial or total loss.

Breast augmentation is mostly performed with implants, but other methods to increase breast’ size are fat grafts, hyaluronic acid, and BRAVA suction system.

Breast lift

Many factors can contribute to breast appearance, but the aging process and the effects of gravity play a primary role.

Just like the face, the skin of the breast loses its elasticity with aging, causing the skin to become lax.

In addition, the suspensory ligaments between the breast to the skin weaken and stretch over time in response to gravity.

Moreover, when breasts enlarge during pregnancy and breast feeding, the skin stretches. After pregnancy, the breasts reduce in size and skin laxity may increase.

Lastly, weight gain or loss and hormonal changes that occur during menopause can cause changes in breasts. 

All of these factors can cause the breast to sag or rotate downward.

Sometimes breast augmentation alone is not sufficient to restore the shape of the breasts.

Breast augmentation in combination with a breast lift is the ideal solution to increase breast size and tone, improving the body contours.

During a breast lift, loose and excess skin is removed and the remaining skin is tightened. As a result, the overall shape of the breasts is improved and they are lifted to a more upright position. When combined with implants, a breast lift results not only increasing the size of the breast, but also restores a more youthful appearance.

Breast reduction

Breasts that are excessively large in proportion to body size often cause  back and neck pain as well as grooves or irritation on the shoulders from bra straps. Sometimes even sleep and recreational activities may be compromised, while the occurrence of rashes and infections in the folds underneath the breasts increases.

Reduction mammaplasty or simply, breast reduction, achieves good results in resolving these problems by removing excess breast tissue to achieve a more proportionate size and form of the breasts. 

Reduction techniques vary depending on breast size and shape, the amount of tissue to remove, and other factors such as scarring or the need for future breast-feeding ability.

Breast anomalies


Breasts that differ by at least one cup size may become noticeable during puberty as the breast tissue starts to develop. In time , the asymmetry may become more evident to the point of seriously affecting self-esteem. Asymmetric breasts can be corrected by either enlarging the smaller one with implants or reducing the larger one.


Breasts of a smaller diameter with an elongated, tube-like shape. There are many variations of tubular breasts, including the entire breast or just the areola, and may result in sagginess or unequal breast deformities.


Inverted nipples

This is the malformation of the nipple due to the retraction of the skin of the nipple and the breast duct terminals for any of a variety of reasons. This problem affects about 10% of women and in 90% of these cases, both breasts are concerned. 

Breast reconstruction

Women who have lost one or both breasts to cancer may desire to have their breasts reconstructed.

Reconstruction may be done when the breast is removed during the mastectomy (immediate reconstruction) or later in time (delayed reconstruction).


Many reconstruction techniques exist to restore breasts to near normal shape, size, and appearance.

Some options use a flap of tissue called an autologous flap, which is taken from the abdomen, back, buttocks, or other area to reconstruct the missing breast.

Otherwise a breast implant, which is an elastic silicone sac filled with sterile saline solution or silicone gel, may be used.

Autologous flaps and implants are sometimes used together.



The medical term gynecomastia means "woman-like breasts." Sometimes certain drugs and medical conditions may cause breast overdevelopment, but often there is no known cause (medically termed "idiopathic gynecomastia").

The male breast reduction procedure removes fat and/or glandular tissue from the breasts and, in rare cases, excess skin. The result is a flatter, firmer chest consistent with a masculine body contour.